Tag Archives: Confucius

Analects of Confucius Book 3: Confucius on archery and leadership

archery and leadership

“A leader does not engage in competition.” This is the advice that Confucius gives in Chapter 7 of Book 3 of the Analects.

“But if you can’t avoid it, you should practice archery,” Confucius continues. This is because he saw archery as more of a ritual discipline than a mere contest. Hitting the center of the target requires a calm and concentrated inner state rather than physical power and strength. Trying to compete with other participants will only serve to detract from this focus, and more likely than not cause you to try too hard and lose your accuracy. Continue reading Analects of Confucius Book 3: Confucius on archery and leadership

Duke Ding of Lu

Duke Ding (魯定公) was the predecessor of Duke Ai (哀公) as the ruler of Lu, and reigned from around 509 to 495 BCE. Although responsible for elevating Confucius to his highest official position as Minister of Justice (大司寇) of Lu, the duke was ultimately at least indirectly responsible for Confucius’s decision to go into exile because of his inability to control the Three Families, who were the de facto rulers of the state. Indeed, Duke Ding was said to be so weak that he was the kind of ruler who “held the blade of the sword and offered the handle to his enemies.” Continue reading Duke Ding of Lu

Wangsun Jia

Wangsun Jia (王孫賈) was the chief minister of Duke Ling of Wei (魏), the ruler of one of the states that Confucius visited in his fruitless quest for engagement as an adviser. No doubt feeling threatened by the arrival of the sage, he obliquely warned Confucius to go through him rather than directly to his ruler by quoting an old proverb about praying to the kitchen god.  Continue reading Wangsun Jia

Analects of Confucius Book 2: Confucius on law

Law

As a magistrate in his home state of Lu, Confucius would have had plenty of opportunities to see at first hand the arbitrariness and brutality of the legal system that prevailed in ancient China. Justice was rare and punishments were extremely severe for the convicted, who faced summary dismemberment and execution. Even those who managed to evade such horrific sanctions were tattooed so that they were clearly identified as criminals after their sentence was completed. Continue reading Analects of Confucius Book 2: Confucius on law

Analects of Confucius Book 2: Confucius on ritual

Rites

Ritual can be best understood as a behavioral language that provides the grammar, syntax, and standard usage patterns that enable people to act in an appropriate way in any given situation – whether at a wedding, a funeral, a formal dinner, or a casual lunch. Continue reading Analects of Confucius Book 2: Confucius on ritual