Confucius said: “Imagine someone who can recite the three hundred poems of the Book of Songs by heart but is unable to carry out their job when given an official post or proves to be incapable of responding on their own initiative when sent on a mission to another state. No matter how many poems they may have memorized, what use would they be?”
Even the most intensive study of a subject is of no use at all if you’re incapable of applying what you’ve learned to come up with practical solutions to real-life problems. The finest and most eloquent language is of no value at all if you’re unable to conjure up an appropriate response to a searching question from a hostile audience member. Effective learning doesn’t just require the acquisition of knowledge but also the application of it according to the needs of the situation you find yourself in.
This article features a translation of Chapter 5 of Book 13 of the Analects of Confucius. You can read my full translation of Book 13 here.
(1) In Confucius’s time, court and diplomatic discussions were carried out in a ritualistic fashion in which the participants made extensive quotations from the Book of Songs (詩經/shījīng) to emphasize their points and make appropriate allusions to similar incidents in the past. While memorizing the contents of the Book of Songs was an important first step for aspiring officials, it was nowhere near sufficient for them to engage in such verbal sword play. They also had to be able to develop the mental dexterity required to take the initiative and respond effectively to the specific questions they were faced with by learning how to apply this knowledge in practical situations.
(2) Confucius regarded the study of the Book of Songs as the essential foundation of a young person’s education. In 17.9, for example, he says that it “can inspire your imagination, provide a vehicle for self-contemplation, make you more sociable, and voice a complaint more effectively. At home it enables you to serve your father; further afield it helps you serve your lord. You can also learn the names of many birds, animals, plants, and trees from it.” See 16.13 and 17.10 for similar comments.
I took this image in the stunning primal forest of Taipingshan. You can read more about the magical place here.