Contemporary figures in the Analects of Confucius: Ji Zicheng

Nothing is known about Ji Zicheng (棘子成) except that he was a minister in the state of Wei. Ji makes only one appearance in the Analects when he questions the value of cultural refinement in a dialog with Confucius’s follower Zigong in 12.8.

Some commentators speculate that Ji was obliquely criticizing the ruling elite for their preference for vapid displays of rhetorical and sartorial excess over political and administrative substance with his attack on cultural refinement. Others suggest he may having been having a go at Zigong for his fastidious approach to bettering himself. Perhaps it was a bit of both.

Zigong served as an official in the state of Wei for a while. This is probably when the two of them met.

Appearances in the Analects of Confucius
Book 12, Chapter 8

Book 12
Chapter 8

Ji Zicheng said: “Native substance determines whether or not you’re a leader. What use is cultural refinement?” Zigong said: “What a pity you’ve chosen to describe a leader in this way. ‘A team of horses cannot catch up with a tongue.’ Cultural refinement is native substance; native substance is cultural refinement. Without their hair, the pelts of tigers and leopards are just the same as those of a dog or a sheep.”

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