Analects Book 2: on learning


In the famous snapshot he gives of his life in Chapter IV of Book 2, Confucius summarizes the four-step process that he followed on what we might these days describe as his “lifelong learning journey.”

As the first step, Confucius applied himself to the rigorous study of the classics in order to internalize the wisdom of the ancients and to draw the appropriate lessons from their behavior. With all the fundamentals in place, he understood the path he should follow and thus felt able to declare that at the age of thirty “I set my course.”

Over the next twenty years of his life, he became increasingly comfortable with the path he had chosen and started to build up an understanding of how his personal wishes and motivations accorded with the “will of Heaven.”

Finally, in the last twenty years of his life his own desires were so in tune with the will of Heaven that there was no difference between them and he instinctively knew how to follow his “heart’s desires without overstepping the line.”

For Confucius, therefore, the ultimate objective of learning was a moral one: namely, to reach a state of effortless harmony with the world around you that meant you automatically thought the right thought and behaved in the right manner no matter what kind of situation you encountered. While academic study was the critical first step in building up the necessary knowledge base to draw from, applying and cultivating this knowledge during the course of your life was even more important over the long term.

Without a constant process of reflecting on your thoughts and actions, you would never be able to reach the point in which your own desires and conduct were perfectly aligned with the laws governing the natural world.

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