Analects Book 2: on Heaven


Confucius didn’t “do god” in the sense of worshiping a specific deity or religion, but he did subscribe to a belief in the idea of an all-seeing and all-knowing “Heaven” (天/tiān) that acted as a sort of moral guide for the world and bestowed its goodness and wisdom on worthy individuals who would lead it out of chaos and darkness. Continue reading Analects Book 2: on Heaven

Industry 4.0 and the “craftsman’s spirit”


Industry 4.0 is a hot topic in China, not least because of the extensive government policies aimed at promoting increased innovation that have been launched as part of the latest five-year plan. The aim of these is to boost the productivity of the country’s huge manufacturing industry and increase its global competitiveness by helping it to move up the value chain through the development of higher-quality and more innovative products. Continue reading Industry 4.0 and the “craftsman’s spirit”