Analects Book 2: on law


As a magistrate in his home state of Lu, Confucius would have had plenty of opportunities to see at first hand the arbitrariness and brutality of the legal system that prevailed in Ancient China. Justice was rare and punishments were extremely severe for the convicted, who faced summary dismemberment and execution. Even those who managed to evade such horrific sanctions were tattooed so that they were clearly identified as criminals after their sentence was completed. Continue reading Analects Book 2: on law

Analects Book 2: on Heaven


Confucius didn’t “do god” in the sense of worshiping a specific deity or religion, but he did subscribe to a belief in the idea of an all-seeing and all-knowing “Heaven” (天/tiān) that acted as a sort of moral guide for the world and bestowed its goodness and wisdom on worthy individuals who would lead it out of chaos and darkness. Continue reading Analects Book 2: on Heaven

Industry 4.0 and the “craftsman’s spirit”


Industry 4.0 is a hot topic in China, not least because of the extensive government policies aimed at promoting increased innovation that have been launched as part of the latest five-year plan. The aim of these is to boost the productivity of the country’s huge manufacturing industry and increase its global competitiveness by helping it to move up the value chain through the development of higher-quality and more innovative products. Continue reading Industry 4.0 and the “craftsman’s spirit”

Analects Book 2: on governance


Confucius lived during turbulent times of great political and social instability, in which the various feudal states that comprised the decaying Zhou dynasty were vying with each other for supremacy and the aristocracies within each state were fighting with the hereditary ruling families to gain more influence and power. Continue reading Analects Book 2: on governance