Yuan Xian (原憲) was also known by the courtesy name of Zisi (子思) and the name of Yuan Si (原思). Born in either in the state of Song (宋) or state of Lu (魯) in around 586 BC, he was over thirty years younger than Confucius and was noted for the excessive, some might say ostentatious, zeal with which pursuing a path of fastidious purity. Even Confucius was moved to criticize him for going too far, telling him that he shouldn’t decline the salary he was offered for an official position in Chapter V of Book 6.
After the death of Confucius, Yuan Xian lived in obscurity in the state of Wei (魏). Book 14 of the Analects is traditionally attributed to his disciples. He is also identified as the character Lao (牢) in Chapter VII of Book 9.
When Yuan Xian was made an official, he was offered a salary of nine hundred measures of grain but declined it. Confucius said: “Please don’t! Surely you can give it to your neighbors and the people in your village.”
Lao stated: “Confucius said: ‘Since I was never tested in high public office I became skilled in the arts.’”
Yuan Xian asked about shame. Confucius said: “Caring only about your official salary no matter whether good or bad government prevails in the state. That is shameful.” “If you can overcome aggressiveness, arrogance, bitterness, and greed can you be said to have achieved true goodness?” Confucius said: “You can be said to have achieved something difficult; but I don’t know whether it is true goodness.”