Nine ways a leader focuses his thoughts

Confucius said: “A leader focuses his thoughts in nine ways: when looking he focuses on seeing clearly; when listening he focuses on hearing properly; in his facial expression, he focuses on looking friendly; in his demeanor, he focuses on being respectful; in his speech, he focuses on sincerity; when at his duties, he focuses on being respectful; when he has doubts, he focuses on asking questions; when angry, he focuses on the negative consequences; when faced with an opportunity for profit, he focuses on rightness.

I suppose that a list of nine makes a change from the lists of three that littered the earlier parts of Book 16. But even taking into account the conciseness of the classical Chinese text compared to the English, the list has for too many items for most people to remember.

Given that there are no other lists like this in the Analects, this is most likely a hack rather than an actual quotation from Confucius.

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