Followers of Confucius: Nan Rong

The identity of Nan Rong (南容), who was also known by the courtesy name of Nangong Kuo (南宮适), is uncertain, though Confucius thought highly enough of him to arrange for him to marry his niece.

Some commentators speculate that  Nan Rong was Nangong Jingshu (南宮敬叔), the younger son of Meng Xizi (孟僖子), the head of one of the notorious Three Families that were the real power in the state of Lu. If this claim is true, Nan Rong would have been the first private student of Confucius along his elder brother Meng Yizi (孟懿子).

The two brothers are said to have been urged by their father on his deathbed to study with the sage so that they would avoid repeating the mistakes that he had made about ritual and protocol as a minister of the state of Lu.

Nangong Jingshu is believed to have played a major role in arranging for Confucius to visit the court of the Zhou king to study its ancient rituals and music. In another story, he is credited for saving the priceless ancient documents kept in the library of Duke Ai of Lu when fire broke out in the palace.

Given his love of learning and his ability to navigate the treacherous winds and squalls of life in the Lu bureaucracy, it shouldn’t come as much of a surprise that Confucius saw him as the ideal husband for his niece.

Appearances in the Analects of Confucius
Book 5, Chapter II
Book 11, Chapter VI
Book 14, Chapter 5

Book 5
Chapter 2
子謂南容,「邦有道不廢,邦無道免於刑戮。」以其兄之子妻之。
Confucius said of Nan Rong: “In a well-governed state, he will not be overlooked for an official position. In a badly-governed state, he will avoid punishment and disgrace.” Confucius arranged for him to marry his niece.

Book 11
Chapter VI
南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。
Nan Rong constantly repeated a refrain from the poem “white jade scepter”. Confucius gave him his elder brother’s daughter in marriage.

Book 14
Chapter 5
曰:「君子哉若人!尚德哉若人!」
Nangong Kuo asked Confucius, saying: “Yi was a great archer, and Ao a great sailor, but neither died a natural death. Yu and Ji toiled on the land, but they came to own the world.” Confucius made no reply. Nangong Kuo left. Confucius said: “He is a true leader! This man truly prizes virtue!”

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