Analects of Confucius, Book 13

Chapter I
子路問「政」。子曰:「先之,勞之。」請益。曰:「無倦。」
Zilu asked about governance. Confucius said: “Lead the people by example. Work hard for them.” Zilu asked him for further instruction. Confucius said: “Tirelessly.”

Chapter II
仲弓為季氏宰,問「政」。子曰:「先有司,赦小過,舉賢才。」曰:「焉知賢才而舉之?」曰:「舉爾所知,爾所不知,人其舍諸!」
When Ran Yong was serving as a steward of the Ji Family, he asked about governance. Confucius said: “First appoint your senior officials. Forgive small mistakes. Promote people of talent.” Ran Yong asked: “How do I recognize that someone has talent and deserves to be promoted?” Confucius said: “Promote those you know. Those you don’t know will not be passed over.”

Chapter III
子路曰:「衛君待子而為政,子將奚先?」子曰:「必也正名乎!」子路曰:「有是哉?子之迂也!奚其正?」子曰:「野哉,由也!君子於其所不知,蓋闕如也。名不正,則言不順;言不順,則事不成;事不成,則禮樂不興;禮樂不興,則刑罰不中;刑罰不中,則民無所措手足。故君子名之必可言也,言之必可行也。君子於其言,無所茍而已矣!」
Zilu asked: “If the Duke of Wei were to entrust you with the government of his state, what would be your first priority? Confucius said: “It most definitely would be to rectify the names.” Zilu said: “Really? Isn’t that a little strange? How would that make things right?” Confucius said: “How dense can you get! If a leader doesn’t understand what he is talking about, he should remain silent. If the names are not correct, language does not accord with the truth of things. When language does not accord with the truth of things, nothing can be carried out successfully. When nothing can be carried out successfully, the rites and music will not flourish. When the rites and music don’t flourish, punishments and penalties miss their mark. When punishments and penalties miss their mark, the people do not know where to place their hands and feet. Therefore, a leader must be able to give the appropriate name to whatever he wants to talk about, and must also make sure he does exactly as he says. When it comes to speaking, a leader doesn’t allow any carelessness.”

Chapter IV
樊遲請學稼,子曰:「吾不如老農。」請學為圃,曰:「吾不如老圃。」樊遲出,子曰:「小人哉,樊須也!上好禮,則民莫敢不敬;上好義,則民莫敢不服;上好信,則民莫敢不用情。夫如是,則四方之民,襁負其子而至矣;焉用稼!」
Fan Chi asked to learn about cultivating grain. Confucius said: “You’d be better off asking an old farmer.” Fan Chi asked to be taught about raising vegetables. Confucius said: “You’d be better off asking an old gardener.” After Fan Chi had left, Confucius said: “What a small-minded man! If a ruler loves the rites, the people would not dare to be disrespectful. If a ruler loves rightness, the people would not dare to be disobedient. If a ruler loves trustworthiness, the people would not dare to be deceitful. If such a ruler existed, people would flock to him from everywhere with their children strapped to their backs. What need would there be to know about farming?”

Chapter V
子曰:「誦詩三百,授之以政,不達;使於四方,不能專對。雖多,亦奚以為?」Confucius said: “Imagine a man who can recite the three hundred poems of the Book of Songs by heart but is unable to carry out his job when given an official post or proves to be incapable of responding on his own initiative when sent on a mission to another state. No matter how many poems he may have memorized, what use would they be to him?”

Chapter VI
子曰:「其身正,不令而行;其身不正,雖令不從。」
Confucius said: “If a ruler behaves in the correct manner everything will operate smoothly even if he issues no orders. If a ruler doesn’t behave in the correct manner, nobody will listen even if he does issue orders.”

Chapter VII
子曰:「魯衛之政,兄弟也。」
Confucius said: “The governments of the states of Lu and Wei are like older and younger brothers.”

Chapter VIII
子謂衛公子荊善居室:「始有,曰『苟合矣』;少有,曰『苟完矣』;富有,曰『苟美矣。』」
Confucius commented that Prince Jing of Wei knew how to manage the finances of his household well: “When he first had a house, he said ‘this is truly an ideal fit.’ When he extended it, he said ‘this is truly complete.’ When it became luxurious, he said ‘this is truly beautiful.’”

Chapter IX
子適衛,冉有僕。子曰:「庶矣哉!」冉有曰:「既庶矣,又何加焉?」曰:「富之。」曰:「既富矣,又何加焉?」曰:「教之。」
When Confucius was traveling to Wei, Ran Qiu was driving his carriage. Confucius said: “There are so many people!” Ran Qiu said: “When there are so many people, what should be done next?” “Enrich them. “When they are rich, what should be done next?” “Educate them.”

Chapter X
子曰:「苟有用我者,期月而已可也,三年有成。」
Confucius said: “If a ruler were to employ me, I would have everything under control in one year and in three years the results would show.”

Chapter XI
子曰:「『善人為邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣。』誠哉是言也!」
Confucius said: “’When good men govern a country for a hundred years, cruelty can be overcome and killing eliminated.” How true this saying is!”

Chapter XII
子曰:「如有王者,必世而後仁。」
Confucius said: “Even with a true king, it would still take one generation for goodness to prevail.”

Chapter XIII
子曰:「苟正其身矣,於從政乎何有?不能正其身,如正人何?」
Confucius said: “If you behave in the correct manner, what difficulties will you meet when in government service. If you are unable to behave in the correct manner, how can you possibly make sure that others behave in the correct manner?”

Chapter XIV
冉子退朝,子曰:「何晏也?」對曰:「有政。」子曰:「其事也!如有政,雖不吾以,吾其與聞之!」
When Ran Qiu returned from court, Confucius said: “What kept you so long?” Ran Qiu replied: “Government affairs.” Confucius said: “Surely you mean private affairs. If it had been any government affairs I would have heard about them, even though I’m not in office.”

Chapter XV
定公問:「一言而可以興邦,有諸?」孔子對曰:「言不可以若是其幾也!人之言曰:『為君難,為臣不易。』如知為君之難也,不幾乎一言而興邦乎?」曰:「一言而喪邦,有諸?」孔子對曰:「言不可以若是其幾也!人之言曰:『予無樂乎為君,唯其言而莫予違也。』如其善而莫之違也,不亦善乎?如不善而莫之違也,不幾乎一言而喪邦乎?」
Duke Ding asked: “Is there one single saying that can ensure the prosperity of a country?” Confucius replied: “No single saying could have such an effect. There is a saying, however: ‘It is difficult to be a ruler, it is not easy to be a minister.’ A saying that could make the ruler understand the difficulty of his task would come close to ensuring the prosperity of the country.” “Is there one single saying that can ruin a country?” Confucius replied: “No single saying could have such an effect. There is a saying, however: ‘There is nothing I love more about being a ruler than never having to be contradicted.’ If you are right and nobody contradicts you, that’s great; but if you are wrong and nobody contradicts you, then would this not come close to being a case of a ‘single saying that can ruin a country?’”

Chapter XVI
葉公問政。子曰:「近者說,遠者來。」
The Duke of She asked about governance. Confucius said: “If you make the people near to you happy others will come from afar.”

Chapter XVII
子夏為莒父宰問政。子曰:「無欲速,無見小利。欲速則不達,見小利則大事不成。」
When Zixia was governor of Jufu he asked about governance. Confucius said: “Do not try to rush things. Ignore matters of minor advantage. If you try to rush things, you will not achieve success. If you pursue matters of minor advantage, you will not succeed in major affairs.”

Chapter XVIII
葉公語孔子曰:「吾黨有直躬者,其父攘羊而子證之。」孔子曰:「吾黨之直者異於是,父為子隱,子為父隱,直在其中矣。」
The Duke of She declared to Confucius: “Among my people, there is a man of unwavering integrity. When his father stole a sheep, he informed on him.” Confucius said: “Among my people, people of integrity are different. Fathers watch the backs of their sons and sons watch the backs of their fathers. Integrity can be found in this.”

Chapter XVII
子夏為莒父宰問政。子曰:「無欲速,無見小利。欲速則不達,見小利則大事不成。」
When Zixia was governor of Jufu he asked about governance. Confucius said: “Do not try to rush things. Ignore matters of minor advantage. If you try to rush things, you will not achieve success. If you pursue matters of minor advantage, you will not succeed in major affairs.”

Chapter XVIII
葉公語孔子曰:「吾黨有直躬者,其父攘羊而子證之。」孔子曰:「吾黨之直者異於是,父為子隱,子為父隱,直在其中矣。」
The Duke of She declared to Confucius: “Among my people, there is a man of unwavering integrity. When his father stole a sheep, he informed on him.” Confucius said: “Among my people, people of integrity are different. Fathers watch the backs of their sons and sons watch the backs of their fathers. Integrity can be found in this.”

Chapter XIX
樊遲問仁。子曰:「居處恭,執事敬,與人忠,雖之夷狄,不可棄也。」
Fan Chi asked about goodness. Confucius said: “Be considerate in your private life, diligent in your public affairs, and loyal to others. Even when you are among the Yi and Di tribes, do not deviate from these principles.”

Chapter XX
子貢問曰:「何如斯可謂之士矣?」子曰:「行己有恥,使於四方,不辱君命,可謂士矣。」曰:「敢問其次?」曰:「宗族稱孝焉,鄉黨稱弟焉。」曰:「敢問其次?」曰:「言必信,行必果;硜硜然,小人哉!抑亦可以為次矣。」曰:「今之從政者何如?」子曰:「噫!斗筲之人,何足算也!」
Zigong asked: “What qualities must one possess to be called a true gentleman?” Confucius said: “A man who maintains a sense of humility and can be sent on a mission to the four corners of the earth without bringing disgrace to his ruler can be called a true gentleman.” “May I ask what type of man ranks one step below that?” “A man who is praised by his relatives for his filial piety and who is known by the people of his neighborhood for being respectful towards his elders.” “May I ask what type of man ranks one step below that?” “A man whose word can be trusted and who completes whatever task he undertakes. In his stubborn determination, he may resemble a petty person, but he could still probably qualify as a gentleman of a lower rank.” “How would you rate the men currently involved in public affairs?” “Sadly, these are men you measure by a bucket or scoop. They’re not even worth mentioning.”

Chapter XXI
子曰:「不得中行而與之,必也狂狷乎?狂者進取,狷者有所不為也。」
Confucius said: “If you can’t find people who keep to the middle way to associate with, you will have to settle for the crazy or the cautious. The crazy dare to do anything to achieve their goals, but the cautious will never get their hands dirty.”

Chapter XXII
子曰:「南人有言曰:『人而無恒,不可以作巫醫。』善夫!『不恒其德,或承之羞。』」子曰:「不占而已矣。」
Confucius said: “Southerners have a saying: ‘A man who isn’t steadfast isn’t fit to be a shaman.’ This is so true! The Book of Changes says, ‘if you’re not steadfast in virtue, you will suffer disgrace.’” Confucius added: “Not even a divination will be of any use for a person like that.”

Chapter XXIII
子曰:「君子和而不同,小人同而不和。」
Confucius said: “A leader strives for harmony but not conformity. A petty person strives for conformity but not harmony.”

Chapter XXIV
子貢問曰:「鄉人皆好之,何如?」子曰:「未可也。」「鄉人皆惡之,何如?」子曰:「未可也。不如鄉人之善者好之,其不善者惡之。」
Zigong asked: “If a man is liked by all the people in his village, what would you think?” Confucius said: “That’s not good enough.” “And if he is loathed by all the people in the village, what would you think?” “That is not good enough either. It would be better if the good people in the village liked him and the bad people loathed him.”

Chapter XXV
子曰:「君子易事而難說也,說之不以道,不說也,及其使人也,器之。小人難事而易說也,說之雖不以道,說也,及其使人也,求備焉。」
Confucius said: “A leader is easy to work for but hard to please. If you try to please him without following the proper way he will not be happy, but he will only give you tasks you have the ability to carry out. A petty person is hard to work for, but easy to please. If you try to please him, even without following the proper way, he will be happy, but he demands that you have the ability to do anything.”

Chapter XXVI
子曰:「君子泰而不驕,小人驕而不泰。」
Confucius said: “A leader is confident but never arrogant. A petty person is arrogant but never confident.”

Chapter XXVII
子曰:「剛毅木訥,近仁。」
Confucius said: “Firmness, determination, simplicity, modesty: these bring us close to goodness.”

Chapter XXVIII
子路問曰:「何如斯可謂之士矣?」子曰:「切切偲偲,怡怡如也,可謂士矣。朋友切切偲偲,兄弟怡怡。」
Zilu asked: “What qualities must you possess to be called a true gentleman?” Confucius said: “Supportive, encouraging, and affectionate: such a man deserves to be called a true gentleman. Supportive and encouraging towards his friends and affectionate towards his brothers.”

Chapter XXIX
子曰:「善人教民七年,亦可以即戎矣。」
Confucius said: “After a good ruler has taught the people for seven years they are ready for battle.”

Chapter XXX
子曰:「以不教民戰,是謂棄之。」
Confucius said: “Sending people to war who have not been properly taught is the same as throwing them away.”

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