Fan Chi (樊遲) was also known by the courtesy name of Zichi (子遲) and the given name of Fan Xu (樊須). Born in the state Qi or Lu in around 505 BC, Fan is said to have distinguished himself as a military commander when young, serving in the armies of the Ji family. The first time he appears in The Analects he is pictured as the driver of Confucius’s chariot.
Meng Yizi asked the Master about filial devotion. The Master said: “Never disobey.” While Fan Chi was driving him in his chariot, the Master told him: “Meng Yizi asked me about filial devotion and I replied: ‘Never disobey.’” Fan Chi asked: “What does that mean?” The Master replied: “When your parents are alive, serve them according to the rites. When they die, bury them according to the rites and make sacrifices to them according to the rites.”
Fan Chi asked about wisdom. Confucius said: “Work to ensure rightness among the people; respect the spirits and gods but keep them at a distance. This is wisdom.” Fan Chi asked about goodness. Confucius said: “A good man is first in line to confront difficulties and last in line to reap the rewards. This is goodness.”
Fan Chi was strolling with Confucius around the rain dance altar. He said: “May I ask how you can accumulate virtue, correct evil thoughts, and recognize confusion?” Confucius said: “An excellent question! To always put service before reward: isn’t this the way to accumulate virtue? To attack the evil in yourself rather than the evil in other people: isn’t this the way to correct evil thoughts? To forget yourself in a moment of anger and bring ruin upon yourself and your family: isn’t this is a case of confusion?”
Fan Chi asked about goodness. Confucius said: “Love all people.” He then asked about wisdom. Confucius said: “Know all people.” Fan Chi didn’t understand. Confucius said: “Raise the straight and place them above the crooked, so that they can straighten the crooked.” Fan Chi left. When he met Zixia he asked: “A short while ago when I saw Confucius I asked him about wisdom. He said: ‘Raise the straight and place them above the crooked, so that they may straighten the crooked.’ What does this mean?” Zixia said: “These are rich words indeed! When Shun ruled the world and was choosing from among the masses, he selected Gaoyao and those without goodness disappeared. When Tang ruled the world and was choosing from among the masses, he selected Yi Yin and those without goodness disappeared.”
Fan Chi asked to learn about cultivating grain. Confucius said: “You’d be better off asking an old farmer.” Fan Chi asked to be taught about raising vegetables. Confucius said: “You’d be better off asking an old gardener.” After Fan Chi had left, Confucius said: “What a small-minded man! If a ruler loves the rites, the people would not dare to be disrespectful. If a ruler loves righteousness, the people would not dare to be disobedient. If a ruler loves trustworthiness, the people would not dare to be deceitful. If such a ruler existed, people would flock to him from everywhere with their children strapped to their backs. What need would there be to know about farming?”
Fan Chi asked about goodness. Confucius said: “Be considerate in your private life, diligent in your public affairs, and loyal to others. Even when you are among the Yi and Di tribes, do not deviate from these principles.”