Analects of Confucius Book 1: Translation

Chapter 1
子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎?」
The Master said: “Isn’t it a pleasure to study and repeatedly apply the lessons you’ve learned? Isn’t it a joy to have friends visit from afar? Isn’t it the mark of a leader to go unacknowledged without letting it annoy you?”

Chapter 2
有子曰:「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鮮矣;不好犯上,而好作亂者,未之有也。君子務本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其為仁之本與!」
Youzi said: “A man who shows filial and fraternal devotion is unlikely to question the authority of his superiors. Such a man will never provoke disorder. A leader focuses on the root; once this takes hold the way appears. Filial and fraternal devotion is the root of goodness.”

Chapter 3
子曰:「巧言令色鮮矣仁。」
The Master said: “Smooth talk and an affected manner are seldom signs of goodness.”

Chapter 4
曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身,為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」
Zengzi said: “I examine myself three times every day. Have I been true to other people’s interests when acting on their behalf? Have I been sincere in my interactions with friends? Have I practiced what I have been taught?”

Chapter 5
子曰:「道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時。」
The Master said: “The way to rule a thousand-chariot state is to devote yourself to its affairs and fulfill your commitments; be economical in expenditure and love your people; and mobilize the common people for labor at the right times of the year.”

Chapter 6
子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁。行有餘力,則以學文。」
The Master said: “A young man should be filial at home and fraternal outside it. He should be cautious and truthful, love everyone, but only develop close relationships with good people. If he still has energy to spare after all this, he should study the classics.”

Chapter 7
子夏曰:「賢賢易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信,雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣。」
Zixia said: “If a man values character over beauty, devotes himself to serving his parents, dedicates his life to his ruler, and is true to his word with his friends, I’ll insist he’s learned even if others think otherwise.”

Chapter 8
子曰:「君子不重,則不威,學則不固。主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改。」
The Master said: “A leader who has no gravity lacks dignity and a solid foundation for learning. “Hold loyalty and trustworthiness as your highest principles; don’t make friends with people who are not your equal; when you make a mistake, don’t be afraid to correct yourself.”

Chapter 9
曾子曰:「慎終追遠,民德歸厚矣。」
Zengzi said: “When the dead are shown proper reverence and the memory of distant ancestors is kept alive, the people’s virtue is at its highest.”

Chapter 10
子禽問於子貢曰:「夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政,求之與?抑與之與?子貢曰:「夫子溫良恭儉讓以得之,夫子之求之也,其諸異乎人之求之與?」
Ziqin asked Zigong: “When the Master arrives in another state and needs to find out about the affairs of its government, does he have to ask for this information or do people give him it of their own accord?” Zigong replied: “The Master obtains it by being warm, kind, courteous, unassuming, and deferential. He uses a different method for seeking out information than other people, doesn’t he?” 

Chapter 11
子曰:「父在觀其志,父沒觀其行,三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」
The Master said: “When the father is alive, observe his son’s intentions. When the father is dead, watch his son’s actions. If after three years he has not deviated from his father’s path, then he may be called a filial son.”

Chapter 12
有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道,斯為美,小大由之,有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」
Youzi said: “When practicing the rites, harmony matters most. This is what made the way of the ancient kings so admirable and inspired their every action, no matter how great or small. But they also knew where to draw the line: seeking harmony for its own sake without it being regulated by the rites won’t work.”

Chapter 13
有子曰:「信近於義,言可復也。恭近於禮,遠恥辱也。因不失其親,亦可宗也。」
Youzi said: “If your commitments conform to what is right, you will be able to keep your word. If your manners conform to the rites, you will be able to avoid shame and disgrace. Only if you associate with reliable people will you be successful.”

Chapter 14
子曰:「君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉,可謂好學也已。」
The Master said: “A leader eats without filling his stomach; he chooses a home without demanding comfort; he is diligent in his work and cautious in his speech; and he keeps the company of others who possess the way to make sure that he stays on the right path. This is what it means to truly love learning.”

Chapter 15
子貢曰:「貧而無諂,富而無驕,何如?」子曰:「可也,未若貧而樂,富而好禮者也。」子貢曰:「詩云:『如切如磋,如琢如磨』,其斯之謂與?」子曰:「賜也,始可與言詩已矣,告諸往而知來者。」
Zigong said: “’Poor but not subservient; wealthy but not arrogant.’ What do you think of that?” The Master said: “Not bad, but this would be better still: ‘Poor but content; wealthy but loves the rites.’” Zigong said: “In the Book of Songs it is said: ‘Like carving and polishing stones, like cutting and grinding gems.’ Is this not the same idea?” Confucius said: “Wonderful, Zigong! At last I can discuss the Book of Songs with you! Based on what I’ve already said, you can work out what’s coming next!”

Chapter 16
子曰:「不患人之不己之,患不知人也。」
The Master said: “Don’t be concerned about other people failing to acknowledge you; be concerned about failing to acknowledge them.”

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