The greatest virtue is achieved by following the Dao and the Dao alone.
As a thing, the Dao is,
Elusive and intangible;
Intangible and elusive!
Yet within it is an image;
Elusive and intangible!
Yet within it is a substance;
Dim and dark!
Yet within it is an essence;
The essence is real;
And within it is something that can be trusted;
From ancient times until now,
Its name has never disappeared.
Through it, I can see the beginning of all things.
How do I know how all things began?
Because it is here within me.
Continue reading Daodejing Chapter 21: the greatest virtue
Confucius made regular use of the device of comparing the lofty values of a leader with the base instincts of a small-minded man. In Chapter XI of Book 4, for example, he comments that while the former “cherishes virtue” the latter only cares about the accumulation of material possessions. A leader thus focuses on improving himself in order to better contribute to the common good of society, while a small-minded man is only concerned on extracting as many benefits as possible from it. Continue reading Analects Book 4: virtue never stands alone
Virtue (德/dé) and goodness (仁/rén) are both at the summit of Confucius’s moral hierarchy. The main difference between the two is that while goodness is the highest value that a normal person can aspire to, virtue is the highest state that a ruler can aim for. Continue reading Analects Book 1: on virtue
Zixia said: “As long as you don’t overstep the bounds when it comes to major virtues, it doesn’t matter if you take the occasional liberty with minor ones.”
Just as Zixia urged his students to focus on reaching their most important goals rather than wasting their time on minor diversions in Chapter IV of Book 19, he was willing to overlook minor missteps from them if they showed they were fully committed to the pursuit of the major virtues. Continue reading The pursuit of major virtues
Zizhang said: “If a man fails to embrace virtue with all his spirit and fails to follow the Way with all his heart, does it really matter whether he exists or not?”
The only way for people to make an impact on the world is to live life to the full. You can’t be half-pregnant: if you’re not going to fully commit yourself to something, you won’t achieve any meaningful results.
Zilu said: “Does a leader prize courage?” Confucius said: “A leader prizes rightness above all else. A leader who is courageous but lacking in rightness could create chaos; a petty person who is courageous but lacking in rightness could become a bandit.”
Your greatest strength often turns out to be your greatest weakness. Internal checks and balances are required. Continue reading Checks and balances
Confucius said: “To peddle gossip is to throw virtue away.”
Confucius is perhaps being a tad extreme in his judgment. Then again, is there such a thing as harmless gossip?
Confucius said: “Village worthies are the thieves of virtue.”
A nice pithy swipe at the “do as I say, not do as I do” brigade: the vapid, self-satisfied moralists who see it as their mission in life to inflict their beliefs on everyone else while signally failing to live up to them themselves. Continue reading Thieves of virtue
Chapter I of Book 16 is one of the longest passages in the Analects and is written a narrative style that is very different from the short pithy anecdotes and aphorisms that comprise most of the rest of the tome. Continue reading Justifying the unjustifiable
Confucius said: “I give up! I’ve never seen anyone who loves virtue as much as sensual pleasure.”
Some things never change! This repeats the same sentiment that Confucius expressed in Book 9, Chapter XVIII.