Analects of Confucius, Book 19

Chapter I
子張曰:「士見危致命,見得思義,祭思敬,喪思哀,其可已矣。」
Zizhang said: “A scholar-official who is ready to give his life when faced with danger; who does the right thing when presented with an opportunity of profit; who shows due reverence when carrying out a sacrifice, and who truly grieves when in mourning. Such a man is acceptable.”

Chapter II
子張曰:「執德不弘,信道不篤,焉能為有?焉能為亡?」
Zizhang said: “If you fail to embrace virtue with all your spirit and fail to follow the Way with all your heart, does it really matter whether you exist or not?”

Chapter III
子夏之門人,問「交」於子張。子張曰:「子夏云何?」對曰:「子夏曰:『可者與之,其不可者拒之。』」子張曰:「異乎吾所聞:『君子尊賢而容眾,嘉善而矜不能。』我之大賢與,於人何所不容。我之不賢與,人將拒我,如之何拒人也!」
The disciples of Zixia asked Zizhang about social relations. Zizhang said: “What did Zixia tell you?” They replied: “Zixia said: ‘Associate with the right sort of people; avoid the wrong sort of people.” Zizhang said: “I heard something different: ‘A leader respects the wise and is tolerant of the ordinary; he praises the good and shows compassion to the incapable.’ If I am superior, whom should I not be tolerant of? If I am inferior, then others will avoid me; why would I need to avoid them?”

Chapter IV
子夏曰:「雖小道,必有可觀者焉;致遠恐泥,是以君子不為也。」
Zixia said: “Although there’s a lot to see when you stroll along the byways, you risk getting get stuck in the mud if you have to travel far. That is why a leader should avoid them.”

Chapter V
子夏曰:「日知其所亡,月無忘其所能,可謂好學也已矣!」
Zixia said: “If you recognize day by day what you still need to learn and don’t forget month by month what you have already learned, you truly love learning!”

Chapter VI
子夏曰:「博學而篤志,切問而近思,仁在其中矣。」
Zixia said: “Expand your learning and stick firmly to your purpose; question everything and reflect deeply: this is how you find goodness.”

Chapter VII
子夏曰:「百工居肆,以成其事,君子學以致其道。」
Zixia said: “Artisans of all types live in their workshops to master their trade. A leader learns to master the Way.”

Chapter VIII
子夏曰:「小人之過也必文。」
Zixia said: “A petty person always tries to gloss over his mistakes.”

Chapter IX
子夏曰:「君子有三變:望之儼然,即之也溫,聽其言也厲。」Zixia said: “A leader has three different aspects: from a distance, he looks stern; close up, he looks warm; when you hear his voice, he sounds serious.”

Chapter X
子夏曰:「君子信而後勞其民,未信則以為厲己也。信而後諫,未信則以為謗己也。」
Zixia said: “A leader only mobilizes the people for labor after earning their trust. If he hasn’t earned his trust, the people will feel they are being exploited. He only offers criticism to his lord after earning his trust. If he hasn’t earned his trust, the lord will feel he is being slandered.”

Chapter XI
子夏曰:「大德不踰閑,小德出入可也。」
Zixia said: “As long as you don’t overstep the bounds when it comes to major virtues, it doesn’t matter if you take the occasional liberty with minor ones.”

Chapter XII
子游曰:「子夏之門人小子,當洒掃,應對,進退,則可矣。抑末也;本之則無,如之何?」子夏聞之曰:「噫!言游過矣!君子之道,孰先傳焉?孰後倦焉?譬諸草木,區以別矣。君子之道,焉可誣也?有始有卒者,其惟聖人乎!」
Ziyou said: “Among the students of Zixia the younger ones are well trained for sprinkling and sweeping the floor, responding to instructions, and greeting guests. But these are only details. When it comes to the fundamentals, they are totally lost. How is this possible?” When Zixia heard this he said: “No! Ziyou is badly mistaken! When it comes to the way of the leader, who is to decide what should be taught first and what should be taught last? Students should be taught according to their characteristics in the same way plants and trees are sorted. How can it be the way of the leader to turn them into fools? Only a sage, however, would be able to master everything from the beginning to the end.”

Chapter XIII
子夏曰:「仕而優則學,學而優則仕。」
Zixia said: “When an official has time to spare from his duties, he should study. When a student has time to spare from his studies, he should undertake official duties.”

Chapter XIV
子游曰:「喪致乎哀而止。」
Ziyou said: “When mourning, give full expression to your grief and then stop.”

Chapter XV
子游曰:「吾友張也,為難能也,然而未仁。」
Ziyou said: “My friend Zizhang is a man of great ability, but he has not yet achieved goodness.”

Chapter XVI
曾子曰:「堂堂乎張也,難與并為仁矣。」
Zengzi said: “Zizhang is so full of himself that it is difficult to cultivate goodness by his side.”

Chapter XVII
曾子曰:「吾聞諸夫子:『人未有自致者也,必也親喪乎!』
Zengzi said: “I heard this from the Master: If a man ever reveals his true nature, it’s when he mourns his parents.”

Chapter XVIII
曾子曰:「吾聞諸夫子:『孟莊子之孝也,其他可能也,其不改父之臣與父之政,是難能也。」
Zengzi said: “I heard this from the Master: The one facet of Lord Meng Zhuang’s filial piety that others couldn’t emulate was that he retained his father’s officials and continued his father’s policies.”

Chapter XIX
孟氏使陽膚為士師,問於曾子。曾子曰:「上失其道,民散久矣!如得其情,則哀矜而勿喜。」
The Meng Family appointed Yang Fu as a judge. Yang Fu asked for advice from Zengzi. Zengzi said: “The authorities have lost the Way; the common people have been left to their own devices for too long. When you succeed in getting the true facts of a case, respond with compassion but never take any pleasure from it.”

Chapter XX
子貢曰:「紂之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。」
Zigong said: “Zhouxin can’t have been as evil as people say. That is why a leader hates to dwell downstream. All the world’s effluent finds its way to him.”

Chapter XXI
子貢曰:「君子之過也,如日月之食焉。過也,人皆見之;更也,人皆仰之。」
Zigong said: “The errors of a leader are like an eclipse of the sun or the moon. When he makes an error, everyone notices; when he corrects his error everyone looks up to him in admiration.”

Chapter XXII
衛公孫朝問於子貢曰:「仲尼焉學?」子貢曰:「文武之道,未墜於地,在人。賢者識其大者,不賢者識其小者,莫不有文武之道焉。夫子焉不學,而亦何常師之有!」
Gongsun Chao of Wei asked Zigong: “From whom did Confucius learn?” Zigong said: “The Way of King Wen and King Wu has never disappeared; it has remained alive among the people. The wise have retained its most important elements; the ignorant have retained its least important details. There is not a single person who doesn’t have some elements of the Way of King Wen and King Wu. There is not a single person from whom our Master could not have learned something; and there is not a single person who could have been our Master’s only teacher.”

Chapter XXIII
叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰:「子貢賢於仲尼。」子服景伯以告子貢。子貢曰:「譬之宮牆。賜之牆也及肩,窺見屋家之好;夫子之牆數仞,不得其門而入,不見宗廟之美,百官之富。得其門者或寡矣!夫子之云,不亦宜乎!」
Shusun Wushu said to the ministers at court: “Zigong is superior to Confucius.” Zifu Jingbo told this to Zigong. Zigong said: “Let us take the surrounding wall of a residence as a comparison. My wall is only shoulder-height; so you can simply peer over it to see the beauty of the house inside. Our Master’s wall would tower many yards higher; so unless you are allowed through the gate, you cannot imagine the magnificence of the ancestral temple and the majesty of the other buildings. But since very few people have been allowed through the gate, it’s not surprising that your colleague would make such a comment.”

Chapter XXIV
叔孫武叔毀仲尼。子貢曰:「無以為也!仲尼不可毀也。他人之賢者,丘陵也,猶可踰也。仲尼,日月也,無得而踰焉。人雖欲自絕,其何傷於日月乎?多見其不知自量也!」
Shusun Wushu vilified Confucius. Zigong said: “It doesn’t matter. Confucius cannot be vilified. The worthiness of other people is like a hill that you can climb over; but Confucius is like the sun or the moon, which are impossible to climb over. Even if someone wished to cut himself off from their light, how would this harm the sun and the moon? At most, it would show that he had no sense of his own value.”

Chapter XXV
陳子禽謂子貢曰:「子為恭也,仲尼豈賢於子乎?」子貢曰:「君子一言以為知,一言以為不知,言不可不慎也!夫子之不可及也,猶天之不可階而升也。夫子之得邦家者,所謂立之斯立,道之斯行,綏之斯來,動之斯和。其生也榮,其死也哀,如之何其可及也?」
Chen Ziqin said to Zigong: “Sir, you are just being polite; how could Confucius be considered to be your superior?” Zigong said: “A leader can reveal his wisdom with a single phrase, and can betray his ignorance with a single phrase. That is why he must be careful about what he says. The Master’s achievements cannot be equaled, just as there are no steps that you can climb to reach the sky. If the Master been entrusted with running a country or a family estate, he would have lived up to the old adage: ‘If he helps them to stand they will stand up; if he leads them they will march; if he gives them peace they will flock to him; if he mobilizes them to work they will follow his call. In life, he is glorified; in death, he will be mourned.’ How can his achievements ever be equaled?”

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