Analects of Confucius, Book 16

Chapter I
季氏將伐顓臾。冉有季路見於孔子曰:「季氏將有事於顓臾。」孔子曰:「求,無乃爾是過與?夫顓臾,昔者先王以為東蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也,何以伐為?」冉有曰:「夫子欲之;吾二臣者,皆不欲也。」孔子曰:「求,周任有言曰:『陳力就列,不能者止。』危而不持,顛而不扶,則將焉用彼相矣?且爾言過矣。虎兕出於柙,龜玉毀於櫝中,是誰之過與?」冉有曰:「今夫顓臾,固而近於費,今不取,後世必為子孫憂。」孔子曰:「求,君子疾夫舍曰『欲之』,而必為之辭。丘也聞,有國有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患貧而患不安。蓋均無貧,和無寡,安無傾。夫如是,故遠人不服,則修文德以來之。既來之,則安之。今由與求也,相夫子,遠人不服而不能來也,邦分崩離析,而不能守也,而謀動干戈於邦內,吾恐季孫之憂,不在顓臾,而在蕭牆之內也!」
The head of the Ji family was preparing to attack Zhuanyu. Ran Qiu and Zilu went to see Confucius and said: “Ji Kangzi is going to intervene in Zhuanyu.”

Confucius said: “Qiu, this is your fault, isn’t it? In the past, our ancient kings gave Zhuanyu the responsibility of offering sacrifices to Mount Dongmeng; moreover it lies in the heart of our borders and is paying tribute to us. Why attack it?”

Ran Qiu said: “It is the wish of our master; it is not the wish of either of us.”

Confucius said: “Qiu! Zhou Ren had a saying, ‘he who has strength stands firm; he who lacks strength withdraws.’ What sort of assistant is one who cannot steady his master when he stumbles or stops him when he falls? In any case, what you said is mistaken. If a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from its cage or if a tortoise shell or a jade amulet is broken in its casket who should be responsible?”

Ran Qiu said: “But Zhuanyu has strong defenses and is close to our master’s stronghold at Bi. If he does not take it today, in the future it is sure to become a threat to his children and grandchildren.”

Confucius said: “Qiu! A leader detests those who invent excuses for their actions instead of simply saying: ‘I want this.’ I have heard it said that a head of a state or the chief of a clan worries not about having a small population but inequality, and not about poverty but instability. For if there is equality there will be no poverty, if there is harmony there will be no lack of population, and if there is stability there will be no unrest. It is for this reason that if people from afar still resist joining you, you must cultivate your virtue to attract them; and then, once they have come, you must ensure they are content with it. But, with you two as his ministers, people from afar are unwilling to join your master and won’t come; his state is racked with divisions and unrest, and he cannot hold it together any longer; but he still plots to wage war within the borders of the state itself! I’m afraid that for Ji Kangzi, the real threat does not come from Zhuanyu, but lies within the walls of his own palace!”

Chapter II
孔子曰:「天下有道,則禮樂征伐自天子出;天下無道,則禮樂征伐自諸侯出。自諸侯出,蓋十世希不失矣;自大夫出,五世希不失矣。陪臣執國命,三世希不失矣。天下有道,則政不在大夫。天下有道,則庶人不議。」
Confucius said, “When the Way prevails in the world, the rites, music, and punitive military campaigns are initiated by the Son of the Heaven. When the Way does not prevail in the world, the rites, music, and punitive military campaigns are initiated by the feudal lords. When they are initiated by the feudal lords, it is rare if they have not lost power after ten generations. When they are initiated by the grand families, it is rare they have not lost the power after five generations. Once junior officials take control of the fate of the state, it is rare that they have not lost power after three generations. When the Way prevails in the world, governance does not lie in the hands of the grand officials. When the Way prevails in the world, the common people do not criticize governance.”

Chapter III
孔子曰:「祿之去公室五世矣,政逮於大夫四世矣。故夫三桓之子孫微矣。」
Confucius said: “It is five generations since control of appointments fell out of the hands of the ducal house. It is four generations since government fell into the hands of the grand families. For this reason, the descendants of the three houses of the Huan family will fall into obscurity.”

Chapter IV
孔子曰:「益者三友,損者三友。友直,友諒,友多聞,益矣。友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,損矣。」
Confucius said: “Three types of friends are beneficial to you; three types of friends are harmful to you. Friends who are straightforward, sincere, and wise are beneficial. Friends who are devious, insincere, and superficial are harmful.”

Chapter V
孔子曰:「益者三樂,損者三樂。樂節禮樂,樂道人之善,樂多賢友,益矣。樂驕樂,樂佚遊,樂宴樂,損矣。」
Confucius said: “Three kinds of pleasure are beneficial to you; three kinds of pleasure are harmful to you. The pleasure of performing the rites and music properly, the pleasure of praising the qualities of other people, and the pleasure of having many wise friends; these are all beneficial. The pleasure of wild extravagance, the pleasure of idle wandering, the pleasure of lavish feasting; these are all harmful.”

Chapter VI
孔子曰:「侍於君子有三愆。言未及之而言謂之躁,言及之而不言謂之隱,未見顏色而言謂之瞽。」
Confucius said, “When you are in the presence of a leader, you risk making three mistakes. To speak about something before the appropriate time is to be impetuous; to fail to speak about something at the appropriate time is to be evasive; to speak without observing the expression on their face is to be blind.”

Chapter VII
孔子曰:「君子有三戒。少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色;及其壯也,血氣方剛,戒之在鬥;及其老也,血氣既衰,戒之在得。」
Confucius said: “There are three tendencies that a leader should guard against. When he is young and his blood and spirit are still unstable he should guard against lust. When he is in the prime of life and his blood and spirit have reached their full strength, he should guard against aggressiveness. When he is old and his blood and spirit have weakened, he should guard against greed.”

Chapter VIII
孔子曰:「君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏聖人之言。小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮聖人之言。」
Confucius said: “There are three things that a leader stands in awe of. He is in awe of the Will of Heaven. He is in awe of great men. He is in awe of the words of the sages. Since a petty person is ignorant of the Will of Heaven, he does not stand in awe of it. He has no respect for great men and treats the words of the sages with disdain.”

Chapter IX
孔子曰:「生而知之者,上也;學而知之者,次也;困而學之,又其次也。困而不學,民斯為下矣!」
Confucius said: “Those who are born with innate knowledge are the highest class of people. Next are those who acquire knowledge through learning. After them are those who learn from the trials and tribulations of life. The lowest are the common people who go through the trials and tribulations of life without ever learning anything.”

Chapter X
孔子曰:「君子有九思:視思明,聽思聰,色思溫,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思問,忿思難,見得思義。」
Confucius said: “A leader focuses his thoughts in nine ways: when looking he focuses on seeing clearly; when listening he focuses on hearing properly; in his facial expression, he focuses on looking friendly; in his demeanor, he focuses on being respectful; in his speech, he focuses on sincerity; when at his duties, he focuses on being respectful; when he has doubts, he focuses on asking questions; when angry, he focuses on the negative consequences; when faced with an opportunity for profit, he focuses on rightness.”

Chapter XI
孔子曰:「見善如不及,見不善而探湯,吾見其人矣,吾聞其語矣!隱居以求其志,行義以達其道,吾聞其語矣,未見其人也!」
Confucius said: “‘Seeing good and pursuing it as if he was unable to reach it; seeing evil and recoiling from it as if he was scalded by boiling water’ – I have seen such people and I have heard such words said of them. ‘Living in seclusion to pursue his aspirations; doing what is right to attain the Way’ – I have heard such words, but I have never seen such people.”

Chapter XII
「齊景公有馬千駟,死之日,民無德而稱焉。伯夷、叔齊餓於首陽之下,民到于今稱之,其斯之謂與?」
Duke Jing of Qi had a thousand war chariots. On the day of his death, the common people could find no virtue to praise him for. Boyi and Shuqi starved to death in the wilderness around Mount Shouyang. To this very day, the common people still praise them. Does this not prove my point?”

Chapter XIII
陳亢問於伯魚曰:「子亦有異聞乎?」對曰:「未也。嘗獨立,鯉趨而過庭。曰:『學詩乎?』對曰:『未也。』『不學詩,無以言。』鯉退而學詩。他日,又獨立,鯉趨而過庭。曰:『學禮乎?』對曰:『未也。』『不學禮,無以立。』鯉退而學禮。聞斯二者。」陳亢退而喜曰:「問一得三,聞詩、聞禮,又聞君子之遠其子也。」
Chen Gang asked Confucius’s son Boyu: “Has your father given you any special teaching?” Boyu replied: “No, he hasn’t. Once, when he was standing on his own and I was hurrying across the courtyard, he asked me: ‘Have you studied the Book of Songs?’ I replied: ‘Not yet.’ He said: ‘If you don’t study the Book of Songs, you won’t be able to speak.’ I retired and studied the Book of Songs. On another day, when he was again standing on his own and I was hurrying across the courtyard, he asked me: ‘Have you studied the rites?’ I replied: ‘Not yet.’ He said: ‘If you don’t study the rites, you won’t be able to take your place in society.’ I retired and studied the rites. These are the two lessons I received from him.” Chen Gang left delighted and said: “I asked one thing and learned three. I learned about the Book of Songs, I learned about the rites, and I learned how a leader keeps his distance from his son.”

Chapter XIV
邦君子之妻,君稱之曰夫人,夫人自稱曰小童,邦人稱之曰君夫人,稱諸異邦曰寡小君,異邦人稱之亦曰君夫人。
The ruler of a state calls his wife ‘My Lady’. She calls herself ‘Your Little Maiden’. The people call her ‘The Lord’s Lady’, but when talking to people from other states, they call her ‘Our Little Lord’. People from other states also call her ‘The Lord’s Lady’.

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