Analects of Confucius, Book 15

Chapter I
衛靈公問陳於孔子,孔子對曰:「俎豆之事,則嘗聞之矣;軍旅之事,未之學也。」明日遂行。
Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about military tactics. Confucius replied: “Although I have experience in handling ritual vessels, I have never studied military matters.” He left the next day.

Chapter II
在陳絕糧。從者病,莫能興。子路慍見曰:「君子亦有窮乎?」子曰:「君子固窮,小人窮斯濫矣。
In Chen, the food supplies were exhausted. His disciples became so weak that they could not rise to their feet. Zilu came to him and said indignantly: “How is it possible for a leader to be brought to such dire straits?” Confucius said: “A leader stays resolute in even the direst of straits but only a petty person loses his cool about it.”

Chapter III
子曰:「賜也,女以予為多學而識之者與?」對曰:「然,非與?」曰:「非也!予一以貫之。」
Confucius said: “Zigong, do you take me for someone who learns a lot and then stores it all up in my head?” Zigong replied: “Yes, is that not the case?” Confucius said: “No. I weave it all together into a single thread.”

Chapter IV
子曰:「由,知德者鮮矣!」
Confucius said: “Zilu, there only a very few people who understand virtue.”

Chapter V
子曰:「無為而治者,其舜也與!夫何為哉?恭己正南面而已矣。」
Confucius said: “If there was a ruler who achieved order through effortless action it was Shun, wasn’t it? How did he do it? He composed himself with reverence and sat facing south. That was all.”

Chapter VI
子張問「行」。子曰:「言忠信,行篤敬,雖蠻貊之邦行矣;言不忠信,行不篤敬,雖州里行乎哉?立則見其參於前也,在輿則見其倚於衡也,夫然後行!」子張書諸紳。
Zizhang asked about getting on in the world. Confucius said: “If your words are sincere and trustworthy and your actions are honorable and respectful, you will get on in the world even among the barbarian tribes. If your words are insincere and untrustworthy, if you act without honor and respect, how can you possibly get on in the world even in your own village? When you stand, you should always have this principle in front of you. When you drive you should have it carved upon the yoke of your carriage; only then will you truly be able to move ahead.” Zizhang wrote this down on his sash.

Chapter VII
子曰:「直哉史魚!邦有道如矢,邦無道如矢。君子哉蘧伯玉!邦有道則仕,邦無道則可卷而懷之。」
Confucius said: “Shi Yu is truly a man of principle! When the Way prevails in the state, he is as straight as an arrow; when the Way doesn’t prevail in the state, he is as straight as an arrow. Qu Boyu is a true leader! When the Way prevails in the state, he serves as an official; when the Way doesn’t prevail in the state, he folds up his principles and hides them in his breast.”

Chapter VIII
子曰:「可與言而不與之言,失人;不可與言而與之言,失言。知者不失人,亦不失言。」
Confucius said: “To fail to speak with someone who is open to what you have to say is to let the person go to waste; to speak with someone who is not open to what you have to say is to let your words go to waste. A wise person never lets people or words go to waste.”

Chapter IX
子曰:「志士仁人,無求生以害仁,有殺身以成仁。」
Confucius said: “Men of purpose and men of goodness do not seek to live on at the expense of goodness; there are times when they will sacrifice their lives in order to make their goodness complete.”

Chapter X
子貢問為仁。子曰:「工欲善其事,必先利其器。居是邦也,事其大夫之賢者,友其士之仁者。」
Zigong asked how to practice goodness. Confucius said: “A craftsman who wishes to do outstanding work must first sharpen his tools. No matter which state you settle in, offer your services to the wisest ministers and make friends with others who cultivate goodness.”

Chapter XI
顏淵問為邦。子曰:「行夏之時,乘殷之輅,服周之冕。樂則韶舞,放鄭聲,遠佞人。鄭聲淫,佞人殆。」
When Yan Hui asked how to govern a state, Confucius said: “Observe the calendar of the Xia Dynasty; ride in the chariot of Yin Dynasty; wear the ceremonial cap of the Zhou Dynasty. As for music, follow the Coronation Hymn of Shun and the Victory Hymn of Wu. Ban the music of Zheng. Stay away from smooth talkers. The music of Zheng corrupts. Smooth talkers are dangerous.”

Chapter XII
子曰:「人無遠慮,必有近憂。」
Confucius said: “A man who doesn’t think about the future is sure to have worries much closer at hand.”

Chapter XIII
子曰:「已矣乎!吾未見好德如好色者也!」
Confucius said: “I give up! I’ve never seen anyone who loves virtue as much as sensual pleasure.”

Chapter XIV
子曰:「臧文仲,其竊位者與?知柳下惠之賢而不與立也。」
Confucius said: “Zang Wenzhong stole his position! He knew that Liuxia Hui had great ability but wouldn’t share the position with him.”

Chapter XV
子曰:「躬自厚,而薄責於人,則遠怨矣!」
Confucius said: “If you demand a lot from yourself but little from others, you will keep clear from resentment.”

Chapter XVI
子曰:「不曰:『如之何,如之何』者,吾末如之何也已矣?」
Confucius said: “I can do nothing for people who don’t ask themselves ‘What should I do? What should I do?’”

Chapter XVII
子曰:「群居終日,言不及義,好行小慧,難矣哉!」
Confucius said: “I can’t stand people who can spend a whole day together indulging in idle chatter without ever reaching a deeper truth.”

Chapter XVIII
子曰:「君子義以為質,禮以行之,孫以出之,信以成之,君子哉!」
Confucius said: “A leader takes rightness as his essence, practices it in conformity with the rites, enacts it with humility, and faithfully brings it to fruition. This is how a leader behaves.”

Chapter XIX
子曰:「君子病無能焉,不病人之不己知也。」
Confucius said: “A leader is distressed by his own lack of ability; he is never distressed at the failure of others to recognize him.”

Chapter XX
子曰:「君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。」
Confucius said: “A leader hates the thought of leaving this world without having made a name for himself.”

Chapter XXI
子曰:「君子求諸己,小人求諸人。」
Confucius said: “A leader makes demands on himself; a petty person makes demands on others.”

Chapter XXII
子曰:「君子矜而不爭,群而不黨。」
Confucius said: “A leader is proud without being contentious and sociable without taking sides.”

Chapter XXIII
子曰:「君子不以言舉人,不以人廢言。」
Confucius said: “A leader doesn’t promote someone simply because of what they say, nor does he dismiss what is said because of the person who said it.”

Chapter XXIV
子貢問曰:「有一言而可以終身行之者乎?」子曰:「其怒乎!己所不欲,勿施於人。」
Zigong asked: “Is there one single word that can guide you through your entire life?” Confucius said: “Should it not be reciprocity? Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.”

Chapter XXV
子曰:「吾之於人也,誰毀誰譽?如有所譽者,其有所試矣。斯民也,三代之所以直道而行也。」
Confucius said: “In my dealings with people, do I ever praise or blame anyone excessively? If I praise anyone, it is only after they have been put to the test. It is because the common people acted in the same way that the Three Dynasties kept to the straight path.”

Chapter XXVI
子曰:「吾猶及史之闕文也。有馬者,借人乘之,今亡已夫!」
Confucius said: “Even when I was young scribes would leave a blank space if they were unsure of what to write and people who owned horses would lend them to others to ride. Nowadays such practices have disappeared.”

Chapter XXVII
子曰:「巧言亂德,小不忍則亂大謀。」
Confucius said: “Smooth talk confounds virtue. Impatience in small matters confounds great plans.”

Chapter XXVIII
子曰:「眾惡之,必察焉;眾好之,必察焉。」
Confucius said: “If everyone hates someone, you should investigate that person further. If everyone loves someone, you should investigate that person further.”

Chapter XXIX
子曰:「人能弘道,非道弘人。」
Confucius said: “People can enrich the Way; the Way cannot enrich people.”

Chapter XXX
子曰:「過而不改,是謂過矣!」
Confucius said: “To make a mistake and not correct it is to make a mistake indeed.”

Chapter XXXI
子曰:「吾嘗終日不食,終夜不寢,以思。無益,不如學也。」
Confucius said: “I once spent a whole day without eating and a whole night without sleeping in order to think. I gained nothing from this; it was nowhere near as useful as studying.”

Chapter XXXII
子曰:「君子謀道不謀食。耕也,餒在其中矣;學也,祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。」
Confucius said: “A leader is devoted to seeking the Way – not just a living. Even if you plough the fields there’s a chance you may still go hungry. If you apply yourself to learning, there’s a chance you may find an official position. A leader is concerned about finding the Way; he isn’t concerned about poverty.”

Chapter XXXIII
子曰:「知及之,仁不能守之,雖得之,必失之。知及之,仁能守之,不莊以 之,則民不敬。知及之,仁能守之,莊以 之,動之不以禮,未善也。」
Confucius said: “Power acquired through knowledge that cannot be maintained through goodness will inevitably be lost. Power acquired through knowledge and maintained through goodness will not be respected by the people if it is not exerted with dignity. Power acquired through knowledge, maintained through goodness, and exerted with dignity is still not perfect if it is not implemented in accordance with the rites.”

Chapter XXXIV
子曰:「君子不可小知,而可大受也。小人不可大受,而可小知也。」
Confucius said: “A leader is incapable of focusing on minor matters but can be trusted to undertake great tasks. A petty person cannot be entrusted to undertake great tasks, but is capable of focusing on minor matters.”

Chapter XXXV
子曰:「民之於仁也,甚於水火。水火,吾見蹈而死者矣,未見蹈仁而死者也。」
Confucius said: “Goodness is even more vital to the common people than water and fire. I have seen people step through water and fire and die; I have yet to see anyone step through goodness and die.”

Chapter XXXVI
子曰:「當仁不讓於師。」
Confucius said: “In the pursuit of goodness do not defer even to your teacher.”

Chapter XXXVII
子曰:「君子貞而不諒。」
Confucius said: “A leader is principled but not pedantic.”

Chapter XXXVIII
子曰:「事君敬其事而後其食。」
Confucius said: “In serving your ruler, your devotion to duty should come before any consideration of your salary.”

Chapter XXXIX
子曰:「有教無類。」
Confucius said: “Education is for everybody.”

Chapter XL
子曰:「道不同,不相為謀。」
Confucius said: “There’s no point in taking counsel from people following a different Way.”

Chapter XLI
子曰:「辭,達而已矣!」
Confucius said: “As long as the words you use are enough to communicate your meaning, that’s enough.”

Chapter XLII
師冕見。及階,子曰:「階也!」及席,子曰:「席也!」皆坐,子告之曰:「某在斯!某在斯!」師冕出,子張問曰:「與師言之道與?」子曰:「然,固相師之道也。」
Mian, the (blind) music master, came to visit. When he reached the steps, Confucius said: “Mind the steps.” When he reached the mat, Confucius said: “Here is the mat.” When everyone was seated, Confucius told him: “This person is here; that person is there.” After the music master had left, Zizhang asked: “Is this the way to talk to a music master?” Confucius said: “Yes, this is the way to assist a music master.”

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