Analects of Confucius, Book 11

Chapter I
子曰:「先進於禮樂,野人也;後進於禮樂,君子也。如用之,則吾從先進。」
Confucius said: “The first people to advance the rites and music were people living in the wilds; members of the ruling class didn’t advance them until later. If I had to put them to use, I would follow the ones who advanced them first.”

Chapter II
子曰:「從我於陳蔡者,皆不及門也。」
Confucius said: “None those who accompanied me in Chen and Cai are still with me.”

Chapter III
德行:顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓;言語:宰我、子貢;政事:冉有、季路;文學:子游、子夏。
Virtuous conduct: Yan Hui, Min Ziqian, Ran Boniu, Ran Yong. Eloquent speech: Zai Yu, Zigong. Government and administration: Ran Qiu, Zilu. Cultural accomplishments: Ziyou, Zixia.

Chapter IV
子曰:「回也,非助我者也!於吾言,無所不說。」
Confucius said: “Yan Hui is no help to me at all: he delights in anything I say.”

Chapter V
子曰:「孝哉閔子騫,人不間於其父母昆弟之言。」
Confucius said: “Min Ziqian is such a filial son! Nobody can find fault with the praise that his parents and brothers have for him.”

Chapter VI
南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。
Nan Rong constantly repeated a refrain from the poem “white jade scepter”. Confucius gave him his elder brother’s daughter in marriage.

Chapter VII
季康子問:「弟子孰為好學?」孔子對曰:「有顏回者好學,不幸短命死矣!今也則亡。」
Ji Kangzi asked: “Which of your disciples loves learning?” Confucius replied: “There was Yan Hui who loved learning. Unfortunately, his life was cut short and he died. Now there is no one who loves learning as much as he did.”

Chapter VIII
顏淵死,顏路請子之車以為之 。子曰:「才不才,亦各言其子也。鯉也死,有棺而無 ;吾不徒行,以為之 ,以吾從大夫之後,不可徒行也。」
Yan Hui died. His father, Yan Lu, asked if he could dispose of the Master’s carriage to provide for an outer coffin. Confucius said: “Talented or not, a son is a son. When Li, my own son, died, he was buried only with a coffin and without an outer coffin. I did not go on foot in order to provide for an outer coffin. Since my rank is right behind the grand officers, it is not proper that I should go on foot.”

Chapter IX
顏淵死,子曰:「噫!天喪予!天喪予!」
When Yan Hui died, Confucius cried: “Alas! Heaven is destroying me. Heaven is destroying me!”

Chapter X
顏淵死,子哭之慟。從者曰:「子慟矣!」曰:「有慟乎!非夫人之為慟而誰為!」
When Yan Hui died, Confucius dissolved into paroxysms of grief. His followers said: “Master, such grief is excessive.” Confucius said: “Is it excessive? If I don’t grieve for this man, who else should I grieve for?”

Chapter XI
顏淵死,門人欲厚葬之,子曰:「不可。」門人厚葬之。子曰:「回也,視予猶父也,予不得視猶子也。非我也,夫二三子也。」
When Yan Hui died, the disciples wanted to give him a grand burial. Confucius said: “This is not right.” When the disciples gave him a grand burial, Confucius said: “Yan Hui looked upon me as his father, but I was not given the chance to treat him as my son. This is not my fault, but yours, my friends.”

Chapter XII
季路問事鬼神。子曰:「未能事人,焉能事鬼?」「敢問死?」曰:「未知生,焉知死?」
Zilu asked how to serve the spirits and gods. Confucius said: “If you are not yet able to serve people, how can you serve the spirits?” Zilu said: “May I ask about death?” Confucius said: “If you don’t know life yet, how can you know death?”

Chapter XIII
閔子侍側,誾誾如也;子路,行行如也;冉有、子貢,侃侃如也。子樂。若由也,不得其死然。
When at Confucius’s side, Min Ziqian looked respectful; Zilu looked feisty; Ran Qiu and Zigong looked relaxed. Confucius joked. “A man like Zilu will not die a natural death.”

Chapter XIV
魯人為長府。閔子騫曰:「仍舊貫,如之何?何必改作!」子曰:「夫人不言,言必有中。」
Certain people in Lu were planning to demolish the Long Treasury and rebuild it. Min Ziqian said: “Why not just repair the old structure? Why build a new one?” Confucius said: “This man rarely speaks, but when he does he hits the mark.”

Chapter XV
子曰:「由之瑟,奚為於丘之門?」門人不敬子路。子曰:「由也升堂矣!未入於室也!」
Confucius said: “What is Zilu doing playing that type of music in my house?” The disciples began showing disrespect to Zilu. Confucius said: “Zilu may not have entered the inner chamber yet, but he has at least reached the reception hall.”

Chapter XVI
子貢問:「師與商也孰賢?」子曰:「師也過,商也不及。」曰:「然則師愈與?」子曰:「過猶不及。」
Zigong asked: “Who is better: Zizhang or Zixia?” Confucius said: “Zizhang overshoots the mark and Zixia falls short of the mark.” Zigong said: “Then Zizhang must be better?” Confucius said: “Both miss the mark.”

Chapter XVII
季氏富於周公,而求也為之聚斂而附益之。子曰:「非吾徒也,小子鳴鼓而攻之可也!」
The head of the Ji Family was wealthier than the Duke of Zhou ever was, but Ran Qiu still assisted him with the collection of taxes to further increase his wealth. Confucius said: “He is no longer my disciple. You may beat the drum and attack him, my young friends.”

Chapter XVIII
柴也愚,參也魯,師也辟,由也喭。
Zigao is simple; Zengzi is dull; Zizhang is extreme; Zilu is reckless.

Chapter XIX
子曰:「回也其庶乎!屢空,賜不受命,而貨殖焉;億則屢中。」
Confucius said: “Yan Hui nearly reached perfection, but he constantly lived in poverty. Zigong refuses to accept his fate and indulges in business speculation, and is frequently correct in his conjectures.”

Chapter XX
子張問善人之道。子曰:「不踐跡,亦不入於室。」
Zizhang asked about the way of the good man. Confucius said: “He does not follow the path others have trodden, but he does not enter the inner chamber either.”

Chapter XXI
子曰:「論篤是與,君子者乎?色莊者乎?」
Confucius said: “If a man seems solemn and sincere in his opinions, does this mean he is a leader or that he is only pretending to be one?”

Chapter XXII
子路問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之!」冉有問:「聞斯行諸?」子曰:「聞斯行之!」公西華曰:「由也問『聞斯行諸?』,子曰:『有父兄在』;求也問,『聞斯行諸?』子曰:『聞斯行之』。赤也惑,敢問?」子曰:「求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之。」
Zilu asked: “If I hear of something that needs to be done, should I immediately take care of it?” Confucius said: “Your father and your elder brother are still alive. How could you take care of it immediately?” Ran Qiu said: “If I hear of something that needs to be done, should I immediately take care of it?” Confucius said: “Take care of it immediately” Gongxi Chi said: “When Zilu asked whether or not he should take care of something that he has heard needs to be done, you told him that his father and elder brother are still alive. But when Ran Qiu asked the very same question, you told him to take care of it immediately. I am confused. May I ask for an explanation?” Confucius said: “Ran Qiu holds himself back, so I push him forward; Zilu has enough energy for two, so I hold him back.”

Chapter XXIII
子畏於匡,顏淵後。子曰:「吾以女為死矣!」曰:「子在,回何敢死!」
Confucius was in danger in Kuang. Yan Hui had fallen behind. When they were finally reunited, Confucius said: “I thought you were dead.” Yan Hui said: “While you are alive, how would I dare to die?”

Chapter XXIV
季子然問:「仲由、冉求,可謂大臣與?」子曰:「吾以子為異之問,曾由與求之問。所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止;今由與求也,可謂具臣矣。」曰:「然則從之者與?」子曰:「弒父與君,亦不從也。」
Ji Ziran asked: “Would you say that Zilu and Ran Qiu are great ministers?” Confucius said: “I thought you were going to talk about something different, but you are just asking about Zilu and Ran Qiu. A great minister serves his lord by following the Way, and resigns if there is no possibility of doing so. As for Zilu and Ran Qiu, they might be described as useful.” Ji Ziran said: “Do you mean that they are the type to follow orders?” Confucius said: “They wouldn’t go quite so far as murdering their father or their lord.”

Chapter XXV
子路使子羔為費宰。子曰:「賊夫人之子!」子路曰:「有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必讀書,然後為學?」子曰:「是故惡夫佞者。」
Zilu appointed Zigao as steward of Bi. Confucius said: “You are stealing another man’s son.” Zilu said: “There are common people and officials there for him to occupy his time with as well as the altars of the spirits of the land and grain; why should learning consist only of reading books?” Confucius said: “It is this kind of remark that makes me hate people with smooth tongues.”

Chapter XXVI
子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華侍坐。子曰:「以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也。居則曰:「不吾知也!」如或知爾,則何以哉?」子路率爾而對曰:「千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉,由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。」夫子哂之。「求,爾何如?」對曰:「方六七十,如五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民;如其禮樂,以俟君子。」「赤,爾何如?」對曰:「非曰能之,願學焉!宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願為小相焉。」「點,爾何如?」鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作。對曰:「異乎三子者之撰。」子曰:「何傷乎?亦各言其志也。」曰:「莫春者,春服既成;冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,詠而歸。」夫子喟然嘆曰:「吾與點也!」三子者出,曾皙後。曾皙曰:「夫三子者之言何如?」子曰:「亦各言其志也已矣!」曰:「夫子何哂由也?」曰:「為國以禮,其言不讓,是故哂之。」「唯求則非邦也與?」「安見方六七十,如五六十,而非邦也者。」「唯赤,非邦也與?」「宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大!」

Zilu, Zeng Dian, Ran Qiu, and Gongxi Chi were sitting with Confucius. Confucius said: “Forget for a moment that I am your elder. You often say: ‘People do not recognize our talents.’ But if you were given the opportunity, what would you wish to do?”

Zilu eagerly replied first: “Give me a middle-sized country wedged between powerful neighbors that is under attack from invading armies and gripped by drought and famine. If I were to govern it, within three years I would give its people courage and set them in the right direction.”

Confucius smiled at him: “Ran Qiu, what about you?” Ran Qiu replied: “If I was allowed to run a territory of sixty or seventy or, say, fifty to sixty li, within three years I would secure the prosperity of its people. As for the rites and music, they would have to wait for a true man of character to take over.”

“Gongxi Chi, what about you?” “I am not saying that I would be able to do this, but I would like to try: in the ceremonies at the Ancestral Temple, such as a diplomatic conference, wearing ceremonial cap and robes, I would like to act as a junior official.”

“And what about you, Zeng Dian?” Zeng Dian plucked one final chord of the zither he had been playing and put it down by his side. He replied: “My wish is very different than those of my three companions.” Confucius said: “What harm is there in that? After all, each one is simply speaking from his heart.”

Zeng Dian said: “In late spring, after all the spring clothes have been made, I would like to go out together with five or six companions and six or seven boys to bathe in the River Yi, enjoy the breeze on the Rain Dance Terrace, and then return home singing.” Confucius let out a wistful sigh and said: “I am with Dian.”

After the other three disciples had left, Zeng Dian stayed behind and said: “What did you think of their wishes?” Confucius said: “Each was indeed speaking from his heart.”

Zeng Dian asked: “Why did you smile at Zilu?” Confucius said: “You should govern a state according to the rites, but his words showed no such restraint. That is why I smiled.”

“Ran Qiu was actually talking about running an independent country, wasn’t he?” “Of course. Have you ever seen ‘a territory of sixty to seventy, or fifty to sixty li?’”

“And Gongxi Chi? Wasn’t he also talking about running a country as well?” “A diplomatic conference in the Ancestral Temple! What could this be but an affair of state?” And if Gongxi Chi were there merely to act as junior official, who could possibly be qualified to act as the senior one?”

Zilu, Zeng Dian, Ran Qiu, and Gongxi Chi were sitting with Confucius. Confucius said: “Forget for a moment that I am your elder. You often say: ‘People do not recognize our talents.’ But if you were given the opportunity, what would you wish to do?”

Zilu rushed to reply first: “Give me a medium-sized country squeezed between powerful neighbors that is under attack and in the grip of drought and famine. Put me in command and within three years, I would revive the courage of the people and guide them in the right direction.”

Confucius smiled: “Ran Qiu, what about you?”

Ran Qiu replied: “Give me a domain of sixty or seventy – or, say, fifty to sixty li (miles); within three years I would secure the prosperity of its people. As regards the rites and music, I would have to wait for the intervention of a true man of character.”

“Gongxi Chi, what about you?”

Gongxi Chi replied: “I’m not saying that I would be able to do this, but I’m willing to learn! During the ceremonies at the Ancestral Temple, such as a conference for instance, I would like to serve as a junior assistant wearing a dark square robe and black linen cap.”

“And what about you, Zeng Dian?”

Zeng Dian, who had been softly playing his zithern, plucked one last chord and put his instrument aside. He replied: “I’m afraid my wish is not up to the same level as the wishes of my three companions.” Confucius said: “What is the harm in that? After all, each is simply expressing his own personal wishes.”

“In late spring, when the making of the of the spring clothes has been completed, together with five or six friends and six or seven boys, I would like to bathe in the River Yi, and then enjoy the breeze among the rain dance altars and return home singing.” Confucius heaved a deep sigh and said: “I am with Dian.”

After the three others had left, Zeng Dian remained behind and said: “What did you think of their wishes?” Confucius said: “Each simply confided his own personal wishes.”

Zeng Dian asked: “Why did you smile at Zilu?”

Confucius said: “You should govern a state according to the rites; yet his words weren’t humble.”

“As for Ran Qiu, wasn’t he in fact talking about a real state?”

“Indeed. I have never heard of ‘a domain of sixty to seventy, or fifty to sixty li (miles)’”

And Gongxi Chi? Wasn’t he also talking about a state?”

“A conference in the Ancestral Temple! What could it be but a major gathering?” And if Gongxi Chi were there just to serve as a junior assistant, who would be qualified to be in charge of it?”

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