Analects of Confucius, Book 10

Chapter I
孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾。
When Confucius was at home in his native village, he was unassuming and warm and seemed reluctant to speak. When he was in the ancestral temple or at court, however, he spoke with eloquence but due caution.

Chapter II
朝與下大夫言,侃侃如也;與上大夫言,誾誾如也。君在,踧踖如也,與與如也。
When he was at court chatting with officials in the lower ranks, he was genial; when he was chatting with officials in the upper ranks, he was respectful. When the ruler was present, he looked dignified and serene.

Chapter III
君召使擯,色勃如也,足躩如也。揖所與立,左右手,衣前後,襜如也。趨進,翼如也。賓退,必復命,曰:「賓不顧矣。」
When the ruler ordered him to welcome guests to court, he assumed a serious expression on his face and walked at a rapid pace. As he bowed and saluted to the left and the right, he made sure that his gown flowed backwards and forwards in perfect rhythm with the movements of his body. When he rushed forward, his sleeves fluttered like the wings of a bird. After seeing off the guests, he always returned to announce: “The guests have gone.”

Chapter IV
入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。攝齊升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等,逞顏色,怡怡如也;沒階趨進,翼如也;復其位,踧踖如也。
When entering the gate of the duke’s palace, he walked in stealthily. He never stood in the middle of the gateway, nor did he step on the threshold. When he passed in front of the duke’s throne, he adopted a serious expression on his face, quickened his step, and showed great reluctance to speak. When he lifted up the hem of his gown in preparation for walking up the steps of the audience hall, he inhaled deeply as if he didn’t dare to breathe. On leaving, after descending the first step, an expression of relief enveloped his face. When he reached the bottom step, he walked swiftly, as if on wings. On returning to his original position, he assumed a respectful look again.

Chapter V
執圭,鞠躬如也;如不勝。上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足縮縮如有循。享禮有容色,私覿愉愉如也。
When carrying a jade tablet, he bowed as if bending under its weight. When he held it high, he looked as if he was bowing, and when he held it low he looked as if he was going to make an offering. He adopted a solemn expression, and he walked in short steps as if following a straight line. When participating in a ritual ceremony, he looked refined. When in a private meeting, he looked happy.

Chapter VI
君子不以以紺緅飾,紅紫不以為褻服;當暑,袗絺綌,必表而出之。緇衣羔裘,素衣麑裘,黃衣狐裘。褻裘長,短右袂。必有寢衣,長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居。去喪無所不佩。非帷裳,必殺之。羔裘玄冠,不以弔。吉月,必朝服而朝。
A leader does not wear purple or maroon decorations on his gown; red and purple should not be used for casual wear at home. During the summer, he wears a fine or coarse linen singlet, but never goes out without wearing a gown. With a black robe, he wears lamb skin; with a white robe, he wears fawn skin; and with a yellow robe, he wears fox skin. The fur robe he wears at home is long and has a shorter right sleeve. His nightgown is very long. Thick furs such as fox and badger are worn at home. Except when he is in mourning, he wears all the ornaments on his girdle. Apart from his ceremonial robe, the layers of his other robes are cut to different lengths. At funerals, he does not wear lamb skin or black caps. On New Year’s Day, he attends court dressed in full court attire.

Chapter VII
齊,必有明衣布。齊,必變食。居,必遷坐。
During periods of abstinence, he wore a plain robe made of coarse linen. During periods of abstinence, he changed his diet and did not sit in his usual place when at home.

Chapter VIII
食不厭精,膾不厭細。食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗不食,色惡不食,臭惡不食,失飪不食,不時不食,割不正不食,不得其醬不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣。惟酒無量,不及亂。沽酒,市脯,不食。不撤薑食。不多食。
He ate high-quality rice and finely-cut meat. If the food was rotten or rancid, if the fish wasn’t fresh, and if the meat was spoiled, he didn’t eat it. If the food was off-color, he didn’t eat it. If it smelled bad, he didn’t eat it. If it was undercooked, he didn’t eat it. If it was not served at the proper time, he didn’t eat it. If it was not cut properly, he didn’t eat it. If it was not served in its proper sauce, he didn’t eat it. Even if there was plenty of meat, he didn’t eat more meat than rice. As for wine, however, there was no limit as long as he remained sober. He didn’t consume wine or meat bought from the market. He was never without ginger when he ate, but used it only in moderation.

Chapter IX
祭於公,不宿肉。祭肉,不出三日;出三日,不食之矣。
After assisting at the duke’s sacrificial ceremony, he didn’t keep the meat overnight. When carrying out routine sacrifices at home, he didn’t keep the meat for more than three days. After the third day, he didn’t eat it.

Chapter X
食不語,寢不言。
When eating, he did not talk. When retiring to bed, he did not speak.

Chapter XI
雖疏食,菜羹,瓜祭,必齊如也。
Even if the food only consisted of coarse rice, vegetable soup, and melons, he made a sacrificial offering in a grave and respectful manner.

Chapter XII
席不正不坐。
He didn’t sit on a mat unless it was straight.
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Chapter XIII
鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣。
When the villagers were drinking together, he didn’t leave until the elders had departed.

Chapter XIV
鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階。
When the villagers carried out an exorcism ceremony, he put on his court dress and stood on the eastern steps.

Chapter XV
問人於他邦,再拜而送之。
When sending his greetings to someone in another state, he would bow twice before sending the messenger on his way.

Chapter XVI
康子饋藥,拜而受之,曰:「丘未達,不敢嘗。」
When Ji Kangzi sent him some medicine, Confucius bowed as he accepted the gift but said: “Since I don’t know what this substance is, I dare not taste it.”

Chapter XVII
廄焚,子退朝,曰:「傷人乎?」不問馬。
When the stables burned, Confucius left court and asked: “Was anyone hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.

Chapter XVIII
君賜食,必正席先嘗之。君賜腥,必熟而薦之。君賜生,必畜之。侍食於君,君祭先飯。
When his ruler sent him a gift of pre-cooked food, he straightened his mat and was the first person to taste it. When his ruler sent him a present of raw meat, he cooked it and offered it to the spirits of his ancestors. When his ruler gave him a live animal, he reared it. When dining with his ruler, he was the first one to taste the food after the ruler had performed the sacrificial offering.

Chapter XIX
疾君視之,東首,加朝服拖紳。
When he fell ill and his ruler came to visit him, he had himself laid with his head facing the east and his body covered by his court dress with a sash laid across it.

Chapter XX
君命召,不俟駕行矣。
Whenever his ruler summoned him, he would set off without waiting for the horses to be harnessed to his carriage.

Chapter XXI
入大廟,每事問。
When visiting the Grand Ancestral Temple, he asked about everything.

Chapter XXII
朋友死,無所歸,曰:「於我殯。」
When a friend died and there was no one to take care of their funeral, he said: “Let me look after it.”

Chapter XXIII
朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。
When receiving a gift from a friend, he wouldn’t bow even if it was something as valuable as a horse and carriage. The only gift he would bow for was one of sacrificial meat.

Chapter XXIV
寢不尸,居不容。
In bed, he did not lie stiffly like a corpse; at home, he was informal and relaxed.

Chapter XXV
見齊衰者,雖狎必變。見冕者與瞽者,雖褻必以貌。凶服者式之;式負版者,有盛饌,必變色而作。迅雷風烈必變。
When he saw someone in mourning clothes, he adopted a solemn expression on his face and remained distant even if he knew them well. When he saw someone wearing a ceremonial cap or a blind person, he was courteous even if they were in an agitated state. When riding in his carriage, he expressed his condolences to anyone he passed who was in mourning, even if they were a mere street hawker. When offered rich delicacies at a banquet, he showed his deep appreciation. When he heard a sudden clap of thunder or a ferocious wind an expression of awe came over his face.

Chapter XXVI
升車,必正立執綏。車中不內顧,不疾言,不親指。
When climbing into his carriage, he stood and faced it squarely and then grasped the hand strap. Once in the carriage, he didn’t turn to look at those standing behind him, talk loudly, or point with his finger.

Chapter XXVII
色斯舉矣,翔而後集。曰:「山梁雌雉,時哉時哉!」子路共之,三嗅而作。
Startled by a sudden movement, the bird flew off and then landed again. It is said: “The hen pheasant on the mountain bridge; what perfect timing, what perfect timing!” Zilu motioned towards the bird, which sniffed three times and flew away.

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