Disciples of Confucius: Zizhang

Zizhang (子張), also called Zhuansun Shi (顓孫師), was a native of the state of Chen and forty-eight years younger than Confucius.

Zizhang was said to be witty and highly intelligent, and had a knack for asking Confucius broad open-ended questions that he would expound upon at great length. However, he was also regarded by some of the disciples of Confucius such as Zengzi (曾子) as being quite arrogant and more interested in self-promotion than self-cultivation.

References in the Analects of Confucius
Book 2, Chapter XVIII
Book 2, Chapter XXIII
Book 5, Chapter XIX
Book 11, Chapter XVI
Book 11, Chapter XVIII
Book 11, Chapter XX
Book 12, Chapter VI
Book 12, Chapter X
Book 12, Chapter XIV
Book 12, Chapter XX
Book 14, Chapter XL
Book 15, Chapter VI
Book 15, Chapter LXII
Book 17, Chapter VI
Book 19, Chapter I
Book 19, Chapter II
Book 19, Chapter III
Book 19, Chapter XV
Book 19, Chapter XVI
Book 20, Chapter II

Book 2
Chapter XVIII
子張學干祿。子曰:「多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤。多見闕殆,慎行其餘,則寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,祿在其中矣。」
Zizhang was studying with the aim of securing an official position. Confucius said: “Listen for as much information as possible, but ignore anything that is suspect, and be cautious when talking about the rest; that way you will only rarely say anything out of place. Observe as much as possible, ignore anything that is dangerous, and be cautious about applying the rest to your actions; that way you will rarely have reason for regret. By making few mistakes in what you say and minimizing the number regrets for missteps, your career is set.”

Chapter XXIII
子張問:「十世可知也?」子曰:「殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也;周因於殷禮,所損益可知也。其或繼周者,雖百世,可知也。」
Zizhang asked: “Can we predict the future ten generations from now?” Confucius said: “The Yin dynasty adopted the rites of the Xia dynasty; we know what was discarded and what was added. The Zhou dynasty adopted the rites of the Yin dynasty: we know what was discarded and what was added. If the Zhou dynasty has successors, we know what they will be like, even a hundred generations from now.”

Book 5
Chapter XIX
子張問曰:「令尹子文三仕為令尹,無喜色;三已之,無慍色。舊令尹之政,必以告新令尹。何如?」子曰:「忠矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」曰:「未知,焉得仁!」「崔子弒齊君,陳文子有馬十乘,棄而違之。至於他邦,則曰,『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之,之一邦,則又曰:『猶吾大夫崔子也。』違之。何如?」子曰:「清矣。」曰:「仁矣乎?」子曰:「未知,焉得仁?」
Zizhang asked: “Ziwen was appointed prime minister three times, but he never showed the least sign of elation. He was dismissed three times, but he never showed the least sign of disappointment. On each occasion, he briefed his successor on the status of the affairs of his office. What do you think of him?” Confucius said: “He was loyal.” Zizhang asked: “Was he good?” Confucius said: “I’m not sure; how can he be said to be good?”

“When Cuizi assassinated the ruler of the state of Qi, Chen Wenzi abandoned his large estate and left Qi. Having settled in another state, he said: ‘They are no better than Cuizi,’ and left. Having settled in yet another state, he said once again: ‘They are no better than Cuizi,’ and left once again. What do you think of him?” Confucius said: “He was pure.” Zizhang said: “Was he good?” “I’m not sure; how can he be said to be good?”

Book 11
Chapter XVI
子貢問:「師與商也孰賢?」子曰:「師也過,商也不及。」曰:「然則師愈與?」子曰:「過猶不及。」
Zigong asked: “Who is better: Zizhang or Zixia?” Confucius said: “Zizhang overshoots the mark and Zixia falls short of the mark.” Zigong said: “Then Zizhang must be better?” Confucius said: “Both miss the mark.”

Chapter XVIII
柴也愚,參也魯,師也辟,由也喭。
Zigao is simple; Zengzi is dull; Zizhang is extreme; Zilu is reckless.

Chapter XX
子張問善人之道。子曰:「不踐跡,亦不入於室。」
Zizhang asked about the way of the good person. Confucius said: “They do not follow the path others have trodden, but they do not enter the inner chamber either.”

Book 12
Chapter VI
子張問「明」。子曰:「浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂明也已矣。浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂遠也已矣。」
Zizhang asked about discernment. Confucius said: “If you are soaked with slander and wounded by insults but still do not falter, you may be said to have discernment. Indeed, you may also be said to be farsighted.”

Chapter X
子張問「崇德,辨惑。」子曰:「主忠信,徒義崇德也。愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死;既欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也!」誠不以富,亦祗以異。
Zizhang asked about the phrase “accumulate virtue, resolve confusion”. Confucius said: “Place loyalty and trust above everything and follow the path of righteousness to accumulate virtue. When you love someone, you want them to live; when you hate someone, you want them to die. But if you want someone to live and to die at the same time, that is confusion.”  It may not be just because she is wealthy. It may also be out of a need for variety.

Chapter XIV
子張問「政」。子曰:「居之無倦,行之以忠。」
Zizhang asked about governance. Confucius said: “Execute the responsibilities of your office untiringly. Carry out your duties loyally.”

Chapter XX
子張問士:「何如斯可謂之達矣?」子曰:「何哉?爾所謂達者!」子張對曰:「在邦必聞,在家必聞。」子曰:「是聞也,非達也。夫達也者,質直而好義,察言而觀色,慮以下人;在邦必達,在家必達。夫聞也者:色取仁而行違,居之不疑;在邦必聞,在家必聞。」
Zizhang asked: “When is it possible to say that someone has achieved success?” Confucius said: “It depends on what you mean by achieving success.” Zizhang replied: “To be recognized in public and private life.” Confucius said: “That is celebrity, not success. A man who has achieved success is straightforward by nature and loves what is right. He listens to what others have to say, observes their moods and expressions, and is respectful to others. Such a man is sure to be successful in his public and private life. A man seeking celebrity puts on an ostentatious display of virtue while behaving in the opposite way free of any self-doubt. He will definitely achieve recognition in both his public and private life.”

Book 14
Chapter XL
子張曰:「書云:『高宗諒陰,三年不言』何謂也?」子曰:「何必高宗?古之人皆然。君薨,百官總已以聽於冢宰三年。」
Zizhang said: “In the Book of Documents it is written: ‘When King Gaozong was mourning his father, he did not speak for three years.’ What does this mean?” Confucius said: “This did not apply only to King Gaozong; all the ancients did the same. When a king died, all the officials gathered together and took their orders from the prime minister for three years.”

Book 15
Chapter VI
子張問「行」。子曰:「言忠信,行篤敬,雖蠻貊之邦行矣;言不忠信,行不篤敬,雖州里行乎哉?立則見其參於前也,在輿則見其倚於衡也,夫然後行!」子張書諸紳。
Zizhang asked about getting on in the world. Confucius said: “If your words are sincere and trustworthy and your actions are honorable and respectful, you will get on in the world even among the barbarian tribes. If your words are insincere and untrustworthy, if you act without honor and respect, how can you possibly get on in the world even in your own village? When you stand, you should always have this principle in front of you. When you drive you should have it carved upon the yoke of your carriage; only then will you truly be able to move ahead.” Zizhang wrote this down on his sash.

Chapter XLII
師冕見。及階,子曰:「階也!」及席,子曰:「席也!」皆坐,子告之曰:「某在斯!某在斯!」師冕出,子張問曰:「與師言之道與?」子曰:「然,固相師之道也。」
Mian, the (blind) music master, came to visit. When he reached the steps, Confucius said: “Mind the steps.” When he reached the mat, Confucius said: “Here is the mat.” When everyone was seated, Confucius told him: “This person is here; that person is there.” After the music master had left, Zizhang asked: “Is this the way to talk to a music master?” Confucius said: “Yes, this is the way to assist a music master.”

Book 17
Chapter VI
子張問「仁」於孔子。孔子曰:「能行五者於天下,為仁矣。」「請問之?」曰:「恭、寬、信、敏、惠。恭則不侮,寬則得眾,信則人任焉,敏則有功,惠則足以使人。」
Zizhang asked Confucius about goodness. Confucius said: “Whoever is capable of putting five qualities into practice throughout the world is good.” “And what are those?” “Respectfulness, tolerance, trustworthiness, enthusiasm, and generosity. If you are respectful, you will not be insulted by others; if you are tolerant, you will win people’s hearts; if you are trustworthy, people will entrust you with responsibility; if you are enthusiastic, you will be successful; if you are generous, you will be capable of managing other people.”

Book 19
Chapter I
子張曰:「士見危致命,見得思義,祭思敬,喪思哀,其可已矣。」
Zizhang said: “A scholar-official who is ready to give their life when faced with danger; who does the right thing when presented with an opportunity of profit; who shows due reverence when carrying out a sacrifice, and who truly grieves when in mourning. Such a person is acceptable.”

Chapter II
子張曰:「執德不弘,信道不篤,焉能為有?焉能為亡?」
Zizhang said: “If you fail to embrace virtue with all your spirit and fail to follow the Way with all your heart, does it really matter whether you exist or not?”

Chapter III
子夏之門人,問「交」於子張。子張曰:「子夏云何?」對曰:「子夏曰:『可者與之,其不可者拒之。』」子張曰:「異乎吾所聞:『君子尊賢而容眾,嘉善而矜不能。』我之大賢與,於人何所不容。我之不賢與,人將拒我,如之何拒人也!」
The disciples of Zixia asked Zizhang about social relations. Zizhang said: “What did Zixia tell you?” They replied: “Zixia said: ‘Associate with the right sort of people; avoid the wrong sort of people.” Zizhang said: “I heard something different: ‘A leader respects the wise and is tolerant of the ordinary; he praises the good and shows compassion to the incapable.’ If I am superior, whom should I not be tolerant of? If I am inferior, then others will avoid me; why would I need to avoid them?”

Chapter XV
子游曰:「吾友張也,為難能也,然而未仁。」
Ziyou said: “My friend Zizhang is a man of great ability, but he has not yet achieved goodness.”

Chapter XVI
曾子曰:「堂堂乎張也,難與并為仁矣。」
Zengzi said: “Zizhang is so full of himself that it is difficult to cultivate goodness by his side.”

Book 20
Chapter 2
子張問於孔子曰:「何如斯可以從政矣?」子曰:「尊五美,屏四惡,斯可以從政矣。」子張曰:「何謂五美?」子曰:「君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕;威而不猛。」子張曰:「何謂惠而不費?」子曰:「因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不費乎?擇可勞而勞之,又誰怨!欲仁而得仁,又焉貪!君子無眾寡,無小大,無敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎!君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻視,儼然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎!」子張曰:「何謂四惡?」子曰:「不教而殺謂之虐,不戒視成謂之暴,慢令致期謂之賊,猶之與人也,出納之吝,謂之有司。」
Zizhang asked Confucius: “What qualities must you have in order to be fit to take part in government?” Confucius said: “If you cultivate the five virtues and cast out the four vices you are fit to govern.”

Zizhang asked: “What are the five virtues?” Confucius said: “A leader is generous without having to spend anything; he inspires people to work hard without complaining; he is ambitious without being greedy; he is confident without being arrogant; he is imposing without being frightening.”

Zizhang said: “How can you be ‘generous without having to spend anything’?” Confucius said: “If you let the people take advantage of what is beneficial for them, aren’t you being generous without having to spend anything? If you assign the people to work on tasks that are reasonable, who will complain? If your ambition is to be good and you accomplish it, how can you be greedy? If a leader treats everyone equally no matter whether they are many or few or humble or great, he is confident without being arrogant. If a leader wears his robe and cap correctly, his gaze is straight, and he carries himself with a dignified air that inspires the people’s awe, he is imposing but not frightening.”

Zizhang said: “What are the four vices?” Confucius said: “If you execute people without attempting to reform them you are being cruel; if you carry out an inspection of a public works project without giving a prior warning you are being tyrannical; if you expect the immediate completion of a project after being slow to approve it, you are acting like a thief; if you are tight-fisted in paying people what is rightfully theirs, you are being bureaucratic.”

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